Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Basis of Presentation
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Basis of Presentation||
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
The accompanying audited consolidated financial statements include the consolidated accounts of WashREIT and our subsidiaries and entities in which WashREIT has a controlling financial interest. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
We have prepared the accompanying audited consolidated financial statements pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Use of Estimates in the Financial Statements
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("GAAP") requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Recent Accounting Standards
New Accounting Standards Issued But Not Yet Effective
We lease multifamily properties under operating leases with terms of generally one year or less. We lease commercial properties under operating leases with an average term of seven years. Substantially all commercial leases contain fixed escalations or, in some instances, changes based on the Consumer Price Index, which occur at specified times during the term of the lease. In certain commercial leases, variable lease income, such as percentage rent, is recognized when rents are earned. We recognize rental income and rental abatements from our multifamily and commercial leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Recognition of rental income commences when control of the leased space has been transferred to the tenant.
We recognize gains on sales of real estate when we have executed a contract for sale of the asset, transferred controlling financial interest in the asset to the buyer and determined that it is probable that we will collect substantially all of the consideration for the asset. Our real estate sale transactions typically meet these criteria at closing.
We recognize cost reimbursement income from pass-through expenses on an accrual basis over the periods in which the expenses were incurred. Pass-through expenses are comprised of real estate taxes, operating expenses and common area maintenance costs which are reimbursed by tenants in accordance with specific allowable costs per tenant lease agreements.
Parking revenues are derived from leases, monthly parking agreements and transient parking. We recognize parking revenues from leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term and monthly parking revenues as earned. We recognize transient parking revenue when our performance obligation is met.
Rents and Other Receivables
Lease related receivables, which include contractual amounts accrued and unpaid from tenants and accrued straight-line rents receivable, are reduced for credit losses. Such amounts are recognized as a reduction to real estate rental revenues. We evaluate the collectability of lease receivables monthly using several factors including a lessee’s creditworthiness. We recognize the credit loss on lease related receivables when, in the opinion of management, collection of substantially all lease payments is not probable. When collectability is determined not probable, any lease income recognized subsequent to recognizing the credit loss is limited to the lesser of the lease income reflected on a straight-line basis or cash collected. The adoption of ASU 2016-02 resulted in an adjustment to our opening distributions in excess of net income balance of $0.9 million, associated with lease related receivables where collection of substantially all operating lease payments was not probable as of January 1, 2019. Rents and other receivables on the consolidated balance sheet is net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $2.4 million as of December 31, 2018.
Debt Issuance Costs
We amortize external debt issuance costs using the effective interest rate method or the straight-line method which approximates the effective interest rate method, over the estimated life of the related debt. We record debt issuance costs related to notes and mortgage notes, net of amortization, on our consolidated balance sheets as an offset to their related debt. We record debt issuance costs related to revolving lines of credit on our consolidated balance sheets with Prepaid expenses and other assets, regardless of whether a balance on the line of credit is outstanding. We record the amortization of all debt issuance costs as interest expense.
Deferred Leasing Costs
We capitalize and amortize direct and incremental costs associated with the successful negotiation of leases, both external commissions and internal direct costs, on a straight-line basis over the terms of the respective leases. We record the amortization of deferred leasing costs in Depreciation and amortization on the consolidated statements of operations. If an applicable lease terminates prior to the expiration of its initial lease term, we write off the carrying amount of the costs to amortization expense.
We capitalize and amortize against revenue leasing incentives associated with the successful negotiation of leases on a straight-line basis over the terms of the respective leases. We record the amortization of deferred leasing incentives as a reduction of revenue. If an applicable lease terminates prior to the expiration of its initial lease term, we write off the carrying amount of the costs as a reduction of revenue.
Real Estate and Depreciation
We depreciate buildings on a straight-line basis over estimated useful lives ranging from 28 to 50 years. We capitalize all capital improvements associated with replacements, improvements or major repairs to real property that extend its useful life and depreciate them using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives ranging from 3 to 30 years. We also capitalize costs incurred in connection with our development projects, including interest incurred on borrowing obligations and other internal costs during periods in which qualifying expenditures have been made and activities necessary to get the development projects ready for their intended use are in progress. Capitalization of these costs begins when the activities and related expenditures commence and ceases when the project is substantially complete and ready for its intended use, at which time the project is placed into service and depreciation commences. In addition, we capitalize tenant leasehold improvements when certain criteria are met, including when we supervise construction and will own the improvements. We depreciate all tenant improvements over the shorter of the useful life of the improvements or the term of the related tenant lease.
Real estate depreciation expense from continuing operations was $101.7 million, $82.9 million and $81.0 million during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
We charge maintenance and repair costs that do not extend an asset’s useful life to expense as incurred.
Interest expense from continuing operations and interest capitalized to real estate assets related to development and major renovation activities for the three years ended December 31, 2019 were as follows (in thousands):
We recognize impairment losses on long-lived assets used in operations, development assets or land held for future development, if indicators of impairment are present and the net undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated by those assets are less than the assets' carrying amount. Estimates of undiscounted cash flows are based on forward-looking assumptions, including annual and residual cash flows and our estimated holding period for each property. Such assumptions involve a high degree of judgment and could be affected by future economic and market conditions. When determining if a property has indicators of impairment, we evaluate the property's occupancy, our expected holding period for the property, strategic decisions regarding the property's future operations or development and other market factors. If such carrying amount is in excess of the estimated undiscounted cash flows from the operation and disposal of the property, we would recognize an impairment loss equivalent to an amount required to adjust the carrying amount to its estimated fair value, calculated in accordance with current GAAP fair value provisions. Assets held for sale are recorded at the lower of cost or fair value less costs to sell.
The properties we acquire typically are not businesses as defined by ASU 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805) - Clarifying the Definition of a Business. Per this definition, a set of transferred assets and activities is not a business when substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or group of similar identifiable assets. We therefore account for such acquisitions as asset acquisitions. Acquisition costs are capitalized and identifiable assets (including physical assets and in-place leases), liabilities assumed and any noncontrolling interests are measured by allocating the cost of the acquisition on a relative fair value basis. Acquisitions executed prior to our adoption of ASU 2017-01 as of January 1, 2017 were accounted for as business combinations.
We determine the fair values of acquired buildings on an “as-if-vacant” basis considering a variety of factors, including the replacement cost of the property, estimated rental and absorption rates, estimated future cash flows and valuation assumptions consistent with current market conditions. We determine the fair value of land acquired based on comparisons to similar properties that have been recently marketed for sale or sold.
The fair value of in-place leases consists of the following components – (a) the estimated cost to us to replace the leases, including foregone rents during the period of finding a new tenant and foregone recovery of tenant pass-throughs (referred to as “absorption cost”); (b) the estimated cost of tenant improvements, and other direct costs associated with obtaining a new tenant (referred to as “tenant origination cost”); (c) estimated leasing commissions associated with obtaining a new tenant (referred to as “leasing commissions”); (d) the above/at/below market cash flow of the leases, determined by comparing the projected cash flows of the leases in place, including consideration of renewal options, to projected cash flows of comparable market-rate leases (referred to as “net lease intangible”); and (e) the value, if any, of customer relationships, determined based on our evaluation of the specific characteristics of each tenant’s lease and our overall relationship with the tenant (referred to as “customer relationship value”). We have attributed no value to customer relationships as of December 31, 2019 and 2018.
We discount the amounts used to calculate net lease intangibles using an interest rate which reflects the risks associated with the leases acquired. We classify tenant origination costs as income producing property on our consolidated balance sheets and amortize the tenant origination costs as depreciation expense on a straight-line basis over the remaining life of the underlying leases. We classify leasing commissions and absorption costs as other assets and amortize leasing commissions and absorption costs as amortization expense on a straight-line basis over the remaining life of the underlying leases. We classify net lease intangible assets as other assets and amortize them on a straight-line basis as a decrease to real estate rental revenue over the remaining term of the underlying leases. We classify net lease intangible liabilities as other liabilities and amortize them on a straight-line basis as an increase to real estate rental revenue over the remaining term of the underlying leases. If any of the fair value of below market lease intangibles includes fair value associated with a renewal option, such amounts are not amortized until the renewal option is executed, else the related value is expensed at that time. Should a tenant terminate its lease prior to the expiration date, we accelerate the amortization of the unamortized portion of the tenant origination cost, leasing commissions, absorption costs and net lease intangible associated with that lease, over its new, shorter term.
Software Developed for Internal Use
The costs of software developed for internal use that qualify for capitalization are included with Prepaid expenses and other assets on our consolidated balance sheets. These capitalized costs include external direct costs utilized in developing or obtaining the applications and expenses for employees who are directly associated with the development of the applications. Capitalization of such costs begins when the preliminary project stage is complete and continues until the project is substantially complete and is ready for its intended purpose. Completed projects are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives.
Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations
We classify properties as held for sale when they meet the necessary criteria, which include: (a) senior management commits to a plan to sell the assets, (b) the assets are available for immediate sale in their present condition subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sales of such assets, (c) an active program to locate a buyer and other actions required to complete the plan to sell the assets have been initiated, (d) the sale of the assets is probable, and transfer of the assets is expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale, within one year, (e) the assets are being actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value and (f) actions required to complete the plan indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn. Depreciation on these properties is discontinued at the time they are classified as held for sale, but operating revenues, operating expenses and interest expense continue to be recognized until the date of sale.
Revenues and expenses of properties that are either sold or classified as held for sale are presented as discontinued operations for all periods presented in the consolidated statements of operations if the dispositions represent a strategic shift that has (or will
have) a major effect on our operations and financial results. Interest on debt that can be identified as specifically attributed to these properties is included in discontinued operations. If the dispositions do not represent a strategic shift that has (or will have) a major effect on our operations and financial results, then the revenues and expenses of the properties that are classified as sold or held for sale are presented as continuing operations in the consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented.
We evaluate performance based upon net operating income from the combined properties in each segment. Our reportable operating segments are consolidations of similar properties. GAAP requires that segment disclosures present the measure(s) used by the chief operating decision maker for purposes of assessing segments’ performance. Net operating income is a key measurement of our segment profit and loss. Net operating income is defined as segment real estate rental revenue less segment real estate expenses.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash and commercial paper with original maturities of 90 days or less. We maintain cash deposits with financial institutions that at times exceed applicable insurance limits. We reduce this risk by maintaining such deposits with high quality financial institutions that management believes are credit-worthy.
Restricted cash includes funds escrowed for tenant security deposits, real estate tax, insurance and mortgage escrows and escrow deposits required by lenders on certain of our properties to be used for future building renovations or tenant improvements.
Earnings Per Common Share
We determine “Basic earnings per share” using the two-class method as our unvested restricted share awards and units have non-forfeitable rights to dividends, and are therefore considered participating securities. We compute basic earnings per share by dividing net income attributable to the controlling interest less the allocation of undistributed earnings to unvested restricted share awards and units by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period.
We also determine “Diluted earnings per share” under the two-class method with respect to the unvested restricted share awards. We further evaluate any other potentially dilutive securities at the end of the period and adjust the basic earnings per share calculation for the impact of those securities that are dilutive. Our dilutive earnings per share calculation includes the dilutive impact of operating partnership units under the if-converted method and our share based awards with performance conditions prior to the grant date and all market condition awards under the contingently issuable method.
Stock Based Compensation
We currently maintain equity based compensation plans for trustees, officers and employees.
We recognize compensation expense for service-based share awards ratably over the period from the service inception date through the vesting period based on the fair market value of the shares on the date of grant. We account for forfeitures as they occur. If an award's service inception date precedes the grant date, we initially measure compensation expense for awards with performance conditions at fair value at the service inception date based on probability of payout, and we remeasure compensation expense at subsequent reporting dates until all of the award’s key terms and conditions are known and the grant date is established. We amortize awards with performance conditions using the graded expense method. We measure compensation expense for awards with market conditions based on the grant date fair value, as determined using a Monte Carlo simulation, and we amortize the expense ratably over the requisite service period, regardless of whether the market conditions are achieved and the awards ultimately vest. Compensation expense for the trustee grants, which fully vest immediately, is fully recognized upon issuance based upon the fair market value of the shares on the date of grant.
Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes
We can recognize a tax benefit only if it is “more likely than not” that a particular tax position will be sustained upon examination or audit. To the extent that the “more likely than not” standard has been satisfied, the benefit associated with a tax position is measured as the largest amount that is greater than 50% likely of being recognized upon settlement. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, we did not have any unrecognized tax benefits. We do not believe that there will be any material changes to our uncertain tax positions over the next twelve months.
We are subject to federal income tax as well as income tax of the states of Maryland and Virginia, and the District of Columbia. However, as a REIT, we generally are not subject to income tax on our taxable income to the extent it is distributed as dividends to our shareholders.
Tax returns filed for 2015 through 2019 tax years are subject to examination by taxing authorities. We classify interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions, if any, in our financial statements as a component of general and administrative expense.
We borrow funds at a combination of fixed and variable rates. Borrowings under our revolving credit facility and term loans bear interest at variable rates. Our interest rate risk management objectives are to minimize interest rate fluctuation on long-term indebtedness and limit the impact of interest rate changes on earnings and cash flows. To achieve these objectives, from time to time, we may enter into interest rate hedge contracts such as collars, swaps, caps and treasury lock agreements in order to mitigate our interest rate risk with respect to various debt instruments. We generally do not hold or issue these derivative contracts for trading or speculative purposes. The interest rate swaps we enter into are recorded at fair value on a recurring basis. We assess effectiveness of our cash flow hedges both at inception and on an ongoing basis. The effective portion of changes in fair value of the interest rate swaps associated with our cash flow hedges is recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Our cash flow hedges become ineffective if critical terms of the hedging instrument and the debt instrument such as notional amounts, settlement dates, reset dates, calculation period and LIBOR do not perfectly match. In addition, we evaluate the default risk of the counterparty by monitoring the creditworthiness of the counterparty. When ineffectiveness of a cash flow hedge exists, the ineffective portion of changes in fair value of the interest rate swaps associated with our cash flow hedges is recognized in earnings in the period affected.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef